Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is transmitted through exposure of the infective blood, semen and other body fluids. HBV can be transmitted from infected mothers to the infants at the time of birth or from family member to infant in early childhood. Transmission may also happen through transfusions of HBV-contaminated blood and blood products, contaminated injections during medical procedures, and through injection drug use. Furthermore, HBV also poses a risk to healthcare workers who sustain accidental needle stick injuries while caring for infected-HBV patients. Safe and effective vaccines are available to help prevent HBV.